The Archives department is made up of archives dating back to 1906. These include records on Chieftaincy, Basutoland National Treasury, Official Gazettes and Gazetting, Complaints, Bewys, boundary and land disputes, administration, Applications, Licences, Minutes, Books, General matters, Receipts, Court buildings, Letters, Requisitions, Telegraphs, Telegrams, Mine Phythises, Agriculture, Expenditure, Livestock, Personal files, Tax registration, Reports, Education (schools), Elections, Basutoland National Council, Party Politics, Tours, Estates, Deaths, Districts, Journals, Herbalist, District Councils, Daily Hansards, Diseases or Plagues, Remittances, Pensions, Judgements of cases, Speeches, correspondences, photographs and many more.

Lesotho made another stride in preservation of its archive. On 30th November 2012, the Royal Archives was officially opened to the public. The Royal Archives building in Matsieng, is adjacent to the traditional Royal Palace. The Archive, Museum and Information Centre preserves and presents the royal archive ‘saved’ from the royal village in 2007 by the National University of Lesotho. The centre is located within the royal village in the office of the late Paramount Chieftainess ‘Mantṧebo Seeiso and King Moshoeshoe II. The official opening was quite eventful with a full cultural programme from elders reciting praise poems of Moshoeshoe1 and other important historical figures to performances of Ndlamo, Mokhibo by traditional dancing groups and school groups.